The referencing system used by Highland Theological College (HTC) is different from that used by other UHI students and staff. Please ensure you use the correct version when submitting your work. This page provides an outline of the key differences, speak to the HTC librarian if you are unsure and he will be able to provide advice.
Short quotations should be included in the text without any change to font, spacing or typeface. Single inverted commas will be used for this. However, double inverted commas should be used for a quotation within a quotation.
Longer quotations should be indented and reduced to single spacing, omitting inverted commas.
The Concise Oxford Dictionary defines myth as ‘a purely fictitious narrative usually involving supernatural persons ... and embodying popular ideas on natural phenomena’. The question then arises as to the appropriateness of such a definition for the material found in Genesis 1-11.
In his book of that name, David Clines provides us with one of the most useful and comprehensive definitions of ‘the theme of the Pentateuch’ to be produced to date:
The Theme of the Pentateuch is the partial fulfilment – which implies also the partial non-fulfilment – of the promise to or blessing of the patriarchs. The promise or blessing is both the divine initiative in a world where human initiatives always lead to disaster, and a reaffirmation of the primal divine intentions for man.
At the end of the essay a list of all the books and articles used in the writing of the essay and especially those referred to in the body of the essay should be provided. Here is how a bibliography consisting of the works mentioned on this page would look:
Brueggemann, Walter,‘Bounded by Obedience and Praise,’ JSOT 50 (1991) 63–92.
Chesterton, G. K.,‘An Introduction to the Book of Job: “Man is most comforted by paradoxes,”’ http://chesterton.org/gkc/theologian/job.htm (accessed 03.09.08).
Mays, James L.,The Lord Reigns (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994).
Miller, Patrick D.,‘The Beginning of the Psalter’, in J. Clinton McCann, ed., The Shape and Shaping of the Psalter (JSOTSup 159; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993), 83–92.
Van Leeuwen, Raymond C.,‘The Book of Proverbs: Introduction, Commentary and Reflections,’ in The New Interpreter’s Bible: Introduction to Wisdom Literature, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles (Song of Songs), Book of Wisdom, Sirach (NIB, Vol. 5; Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997).
Notice that a bibliography is laid out in the alphabetical order of the authors’ surnames. Also where journal articles or chapters/articles within an edited volume are referred to, you give the page range of the article. Otherwise, the formatting of your bibliographic references follows the same pattern as the format used for footnoting. Notice that titles of books or journals are in italics while titles of articles are in inverted commas. Note also that the place of publication is followed by the publisher, then the date. Internet articles should also include the URL and the date on which the article was accessed by the student.
[Please note that as you begin to engage with academic works you will discover that conventions for bibliographies and footnoting have changed over the years, and, indeed, that some publishers use slightly different conventions from others. (You may even have noticed this in some of our module descriptors, some of which were originally created quite a number of years ago.) However, for the BA programme, you should use the conventions indicated above.]
Citing Biblical References
In citing a verse of Scripture there are several ways to go about it, e.g. Gen 3:1-3 or Gen. 3.1-3; Rom. 6.1-23 or Rom 6:1-23. In citing whole chapters, you should not abbreviate the biblical book, e.g. Genesis 5–10 or Romans 9–11. Do not use your own invented style like Ch. 8 v4 or similar constructions. Find one model and use it consistently in your paper.
Footnotes are vital in any essay of a serious academic standard, in order to demonstrate that the student has read widely and has engaged with the relevant literature. The absence of footnotes denotes a serious weakness in the essay and indicates a lack of academic rigour. Footnotes are required not only where books or articles are quoted directly but also to provide supporting evidence or documentation for statements or allusions which you have made in the text of the essay.
As in other aspects of your academic work we will expect to see a progression in the use of footnotes as you move through the levels. At Level 7 we simply ask that you give details of the sources from which you have either quoted directly or acquired an idea. At higher Levels you may extend your footnotes to give supporting information (e.g. additional biblical or other source references; brief comments on sources with which you disagree) but not to advance your argument. In level H4, by which time you should be beginning to engage with material in a manner not unlike that of serious academic researchers, the extent of your footnotes should never exceed 30% of the essay word limit.
You should not abuse the footnoting system and, by doing so, seek to circumvent the essay (or other assignment) word limit. Do not use the footnotes to develop your argument in any new or substantial way. Such abuse will be penalised as indicated in what follows. Penalty for lengthy footnoting Any student who abuses the footnoting system will be asked to re-submit the essay and an automatic penalty of 10% will be applied. The need for resubmission is to be agreed by the tutor and the Programme Leader and then explained to the student.
Penalty for lengthy footnoting
Any student who abuses the footnoting system will be asked to re-submit the essay and an automatic penalty of 10% will be applied. The need for resubmission is to be agreed by the tutor and the Programme Leader and then explained to the student.
The following conventions should be used in writing footnotes.
a. The first time you refer to a book in the footnotes you should use the same full reference that you would use in the bibliography.
b. For all subsequent citations you should use the author’s surname and a suitably abbreviated form of the book title, followed by the page number.
For example, the first citation from a book will look like this:
J. Clinton McCann, A Theological Introduction to the Books of Psalms: The Psalms as Torah (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1993), 113.
Subsequent citations would appear as:
McCann, A Theological Introduction, 114.
The same principle applies whether you are citing from a book, a journal article or a chapter within an edited volume. At HTC we use the Tyndale Bulletin style guide for footnoting.
The following examples show the correct formatting of the various types of citation that you will encounter most frequently when writing essays:
1 James L. Mays, The Lord Reigns (Louisville: Westminster John Knox Press, 1994), 23.
Chapter/Article within Book (Edited Book)
1 Patrick D.Miller,‘The Beginning of the Psalter,’ in J. Clinton McCann, ed., The Shape and Shaping of the Psalter (JSOTSup 159; Sheffield: JSOT Press, 1993), 83.
1 Walter Brueggemann,‘Bounded by Obedience and Praise,’ JSOT 50 (1991), 63.
‘Book’ within a Book
1 Raymond C.Van Leeuwen,‘The Book of Proverbs: Introduction, Commentary and Reflections,’ in The New Interpreter’s Bible: Introduction to Wisdom Literature, Proverbs, Ecclesiastes, Canticles (Song of Songs), Book of Wisdom, Sirach (NIB, Vol. 5; Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1997), 23.
1 G. K. Chesterton, ‘An Introduction to the Book of Job: “Man is most comforted by paradoxes,”’http://chesterton.org/gkc/theologian/job.htm (accessed 03.09.08).
[As an aside, not all internet sources should be treated as authoritative. Take great care to ensure that sources used from the internet are sufficiently credible to be used in an academic essay.]
If you would like to print a copy of this information for convenience, you can access a PDF version at: